Chutney is a type of savory jam. Chutney was introduced to England from India during the era of the British empire. From there its popularity spread to the rest of the Western world. Chutney is a spice and vegetable mix. There is no limit to the number of chutneys as it can be made from virtually any vegetable/fruit/herb/spices or a combination of them.
The main differences between chutney and jam are:
Jam is always made fruit and sugar. In chutney, both, vinegar and sugar are used. Jam preserves the original flavor of a particular fruit. In order not to distort this flavor no other flavorings are added. Chutney is a mixture of fruits and vegetables and is flavored with several spices. Ingredients such as onions, garlic and hot peppers are frequently added.
Chutneys come in two major groups, sweet and hot; both forms usually contain various spices, including chili, but differ by their main flavor. Chutney types and their preparations vary widely across Pakistan and India. American and European styled chutneys are usually fruit, vinegar and sugar, cooked down to a reduction. Flavorings are always added to the mix. These may include sugar, salt, garlic, tamarind, onion, or ginger. Spices most commonly include fenugreek, coriander, cumin and asafoetida (hing).